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Country Report - Australia

Country Report Trust in Australia

st 21 ANNUAL EDELMAN TRUST General Online Population Informed Public BAROMETER 500respondents in U.S. and China; 1,150 100respondents in Nigeria; Methodology respondents per country 200in all other countries Represents 17% of total global population Ages Must meet 4 criteria: 18+ ‣ Age 25-64 Online survey in 28 countries* All slides show general ‣ College-educated 33,000+ respondents online population data unless otherwise noted ‣ In top 25% of household income 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer fieldwork per age group in each country conducted from October 19 to November 18, 2020 ‣ Report significant engagement in public policy and business news *The 2021 Trust Barometer 27-market global averages (for the general population, mass population and informed Mass Population public) do not include Nigeria 27-market global data margin of error: General population +/- 0.6% All population not including (N=31,050); informed public +/- 1.3% (N=6,000); mass population +/- informed public 0.6% (N=25,050+); half-sample global general online population +/- 0.8% (N=15,525). Represents 83% of total global Country-specific data margin of error: General population +/- 2.9% (N=1,150); informed public +/- 6.9% (N=min 200, varies by country), population except for China and U.S. +/- 4.4% (N=500) and Nigeria +/- 9.8% (N=100); mass population +/- 3.0% to 3.6% (N=min 736, varies by U.S. Post-Election Supplement country), except for Nigeria +/- 2.9% (N=1,125). 1,500 U.S. respondents, fielded December 14 to 18, 2020 U.S. Post-Election Supplement margin of error: +/- 2.5% (N=1,500). U.S. Post-Election Supplement ethnicity-specific data margin of error: Non-Hispanic White+/- 3.3% (N=894); all others +/- 4.0 (N=607). 2

21 YEARS OF TRUST 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rising Fall of the Earned Media U.S. Trust A “Person Like Business More Young People Trust in Performance Business Must Influence of Celebrity CEO More Credible Companies in Shifts from Me” Emerges Trusted Than Have More Business and Partner With NGOs Than Europe Suffer “Authorities” as Credible Government Trust in Plummets Transparency Government to Advertising Trust Discount to Peers Spokesperson and Media Business Essential to Regain Trust Trust 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Trust: Fall of Crisis of Business Trust is Growing Trust in The Battle Trust Declaring Competence Government Leadership to Lead Essential to Inequality Crisis for Truth at Work Information and Ethics the Debate Innovation of Trust Bankruptcy for Change 3

2020 2021 YoY General population General population Change +2 54 Global 27 56 Global 27 AUSTRALIA LEADS 82 China 77 India -2 THE GLOBE IN 72 China -10 79 India 72 Indonesia -1 73 Indonesia TRUST GAINS 69 Saudi Arabia +8 66 Thailand 68 Singapore +6 65 UAE 67 UAE +2 62 Mexico 66 Malaysia +6 62 Singapore Trust Index 63 The Netherlands +6 61 Saudi Arabia - 0 + -5 61 Thailand 60 Malaysia Distrust Neutral Trust Change, 2020 to 2021 +12 59 Australia 57 Kenya (1-49) (50-59) (60-100) +2 59 Kenya 57 The Netherlands -3 59 Mexico 53 Canada +3 56 Canada 53 Colombia +7 53 Germany 51 Brazil Greatest decline in China (-10); +3 50 S. Korea 52 Italy greatest increase in Australia (+12) 0 49 Argentina 51 Brazil +5 49 Italy 50 Ireland -5 47 Australia 48 Colombia 16 countries gained trust, +3 47 U.S. 48 France 9 countries lost trust +4 46 Germany 48 S. Africa +1 45 France 48 U.S. -2 45 Ireland 47 Argentina -3 45 Spain 47 S. Korea 0 44 S. Africa 45 Spain 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. The Trust Index is the average percent trust in NGOs, business, government and media. TRU_INS. +3 42 Japan 45 UK Below is a list of institutions. For each one, please indicate how -2 42 UK 40 Japan much you trust that institution to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 4 box, trust. General population, 27-mkt avg. +1 30 Russia 31 Russia

2021 2021 Informed public Mass population Trust gap TRUST INEQUALITY 68 Global 27 52 Global 27 Record trust inequality 16 DEEPENS 86 India 68 China 14 86 Saudi Arabia 68 Indonesia 15 Trust Index 83 Indonesia 67 India 19 82 China 67 Saudi Arabia 19 79 The Netherlands 66 Singapore 10 79 UAE 65 14 UAE 78 Malaysia 63 15 Malaysia Distrust Neutral Trust 77 Australia 62 17 The Netherlands (1-49) (50-59) (60-100) 76 Singapore 58 7 Kenya DOUBLE-DIGIT TRUST 75 Thailand 56 10 INEQUALITY IN RECORD Mexico NUMBER OF COUNTRIES 66 Italy 56 19 Thailand 66 Mexico 55 22 Australia Nr. of countries with 65 France 55 9 Canada double-digit trust inequality 65 Kenya 52 10 Germany Mass population 16 points less trusting Global 22 21 65 S. Africa 51 15 Italy 64 Canada 49 3 Nigeria* 63 Ireland 48 15 Ireland 62 Brazil 47 15 Brazil 62 Germany 46 13 Colombia 7 62 U.S. 45 20 France 59 Colombia 44 12 Argentina 59 S. Korea 44 21 S. Africa 13 59 UK 44 Spain 2012 2021 18 57 Spain 44 U.S. 16 56 Argentina 43 S. Korea 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. The Trust Index is the average 16 52 Japan 43 percent trust in NGOs, business, government and media. TRU_INS. UK Below is a list of institutions. For each one, please indicate how 13 52 Nigeria* 39 Japan much you trust that institution to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 13 41 Russia 28 Russia box, trust. Informed public and mass population, 27-mkt avg. 5 *Nigeria not included in the global average

PERSISTENT TRUST INEQUALITY IN AUSTRALIA Trust Trust Index (60-100) Neutral (50-59) 77 Informed Distrust (1-49) Record high Public 68 22ptgap 63 58 59 23ptgap 53 54 55 55 52 Mass 14pt gap 49 47 Population 46 45 43 41 39 38 40 39 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. The Trust Index is the average percent trust in NGOs, business, government and media. TRU_INS. Below is a list of institutions. For each one, please indicate 6 how much you trust that institution to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. Informed public and mass population, Australia.

SPRING TRUST BUBBLE BURSTS; BIGGEST LOSS FOR GOVERNMENT - 0 + Distrust Neutral Trust Change, wave to wave Trust Index, 11 countries included in the 2020 Trust Barometer Spring Update (1-49) (50-59) (60-100) +/- Jan 2020 to +/- May 2020 to Government Global 11 May 2020 Jan 2021 S. Korea -17 +16 -17 UK -15 +24 -15 +/- May 2020 to Jan 2021 China -13 61 +5 -13 Government -8 -8 Mexico -12 +12 -12 Media -6 -6 -5 Canada -11 +20 -11 +6 NGOs -6 -6 India +6 -8 -8 56 Business -3 -3 U.S. -6 55 +9 -6 Government was the most Germany -5 +19 -5 trusted institution in May, then lost its lead 6 months later Japan -1 -5 -1 Saudi Arabia -1 +5 -1 Jan 2020 May 2020 Jan 2021 France +2 +13 2 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. The Trust Index is the average percent trust in NGOs, business, government and media. TRU_INS. Below is a list of institutions. For each one, please indicate 7 how much you trust that institution to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. General population, 11-mkt avg.

TRUST SURGE IN AUSTRALIA: BUSINESS, GOVERNMENT, NGOS NOW TRUSTED - 0 + Distrust Neutral Trust Change, 2020 to 2021 Percent trust, in Australia Business NGOs Government Media 63 62 61 51 +12 59 pts TRUST INDEX Change, 2020 to 2021 +11 +8 +17 +12 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. The Trust Index is the average percent trust in NGOs, business, government and media. TRU_INS. Below is a list of institutions. For each one, please indicate 8 how much you trust that institution to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. General population, Australia.

TWO DIFFERENT TRUST REALITIES IN AUSTRALIA Percent trust, in Australia - 0 + Distrust Neutral Trust Change, 2020 to 2021 Business NGOs Government Media 80 79 76 73 77 Informed public All institutions trusted TRUST INDEX +7 +5 +12 +14 Trust gap, 22 informed public vs. 22 21 18 28 mass population 58 58 58 55 Mass population 45 TRUST INDEX No institutions trusted +8 +7 +17 +9 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. The Trust Index is the average percent trust in NGOs, business, government and media. TRU_INS. Below is a list of institutions. For each one, please indicate how much you trust that institution to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. Mass population and informed public, Australia. 9

RECORD TRUST HIGHS ACROSS THE BOARD - 0 + Percent trust in each institution Distrust Neutral Trust Change, 2020 to 2021 (1-49) (50-59) (60-100) Business Government 63 61 +11 52 52 52 +17 49 48 45 44 46 45 45 44 42 38 37 37 33 35 32 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Media NGOs 62 57 56 +8 55 54 51 50 52 52 48 48 +12 42 40 39 36 34 33 32 32 31 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. TRU_INS. Below is a list of institutions. For each one, please indicate how much you trust that institution to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. 10 General population, Australia.

BUSINESS AND NGOS ETHICAL 2021 NOW SEEN AS BOTH 2020 35 COMPETENT ANDETHICAL NGOs (8, 20) (Competence score, net ethical score), Media Business (-9, 7) (20, 13) in Australia Government (-10, 13) LESS COMPETENT -50 50 COMPETENT -35 UNETHICAL 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. The ethical scores are averages of nets based on INS_PER_DIM/1-4. Question asked of half of the sample. The competence score is a net based on TRU_3D_INS/1. Depending on the question it was either asked of the full of half the sample. General population, Australia. For full details regarding how this data was calculated and plotted, 11 please see the Technical Appendix.

TRUST INCREASES IN ALL SECTORS BUT TECHNOLOGY Percent trust in each sector, in Australia - 0 + Distrust Neutral Trust Change, 2020 to 2021 70 70 75 68 68 69 58 59 61 61 61 63 53 57 50 +7 +8 +6 +7 +3 +2 +2 -5 +1 +1 +2 +6 +1 +5 +9 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. TRU_IND. Please indicate how much you trust businesses in each of the following industries to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. Industries shown 12 to half of the sample. General population, Australia.

INDUSTRY SECTORS OVER TIME - 0 + Percent trust in each sector, in Australia Distrust Neutral Trust Change, 2012 to 2021 10yr. Industry 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Trend Healthcare - - - - 71 72 69 70 66 75 n/a Food and beverage 67 63 68 67 68 70 67 74 67 68 +1 Consumer packaged goods 56 54 58 58 62 61 56 64 59 61 +5 Entertainment - 61 64 66 66 63 61 70 59 61 n/a Technology 74 65 73 71 72 71 68 72 66 61 -13 Automotive 58 58 60 59 55 61 54 64 56 59 +1 Telecommunications 47 45 48 50 55 54 53 53 51 58 +11 Energy 41 36 41 43 51 50 39 45 45 53 +12 Financial services 46 38 46 43 48 50 49 45 43 50 +4 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. TRU_IND. Please indicate how much you trust businesses in each of the following industries to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. Industries shown 13 to half of the sample. General population, Australia.

PANDEMIC ACCELERATES JOB LOSS FEARS Percent who agree, in Australia As a result of the of the pandemic, I worry that the pandemic will accelerate a portion of our workforce has seen their the rate at which companies replace work hours reduced or their human workers with AI and robots jobs eliminated A large percentage A small percentage 63% 54% 29 34 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. LAY_OFFS. Has the organization you work for had to lay-off or furlough any employees as a result of the economic impact of the pandemic? Code 1, yes, a large percentage; code 2, yes, a small percentage. Question asked of those who are an employee (Q43/1). Total layoff/furlough percentage is a sum of code 1 and 2. SOC_AGR. Please indicate how much 14 you agree or disagree with the following statements. 9-point scale; top 4 box, agree. Question asked of half of the sample. General population, Australia.

Percent who are concerned PANDEMIC ADDED Percent who are fearful TO PERSISTENT 86 PERSONAL AND SOCIETAL FEARS Percent who are concerned, 66 65 and percent who are fearful, in Australia 57 54 59 36 33 29 25 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. POP_EMO. Some people say they worry about many things while others say they have few Job loss (net) Climate change Hackers and Losing my Contracting concerns. We are interested in what you worry about. Specifically, how much do you worry about each of the following? 9-point scale; cyber-attacks freedoms as a COVID-19 top 4 box, worry; top 2 box, fear. Non-job loss attributes shown to citizen half of the sample. General population, Australia. Job loss asked of those who are an employee (Q43/1). Job loss is a net of attributes 1- 15 3, 5, and 22-24.

INCREASED Change in importance since last More Less URGENCY TO Net change year, in Australia Important Important ADDRESS Improving our healthcare system 58 10 +48 FOUNDATIONAL PROBLEMS Addressing poverty in this country 54 10 +44 Change in importance since last year Finding ways to combat fake news 53 11 +42 (more important minus less important) Protecting people's individual freedoms 49 10 +39 Closing the economic and social divide 48 12 +36 Improving our education system 45 11 +34 Addressing climate change 49 17 +32 Addressing discrimination, racism 42 14 +28 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. IMP_POL_PRIORITIES. For each of the following issues and challenges, please indicate whether our country addressing it has become more important to you, less important to you, or has stayed the same in importance, since last year. 5-point scale; top 2 box; more important; bottom 2 box, less important. General population, Australia. Net change is the difference between 16 more and less important.

TRUST SHIFTS IN LEADERS TO DO WHAT’S RIGHT - 0 + Percent trust, in Australia Distrust Neutral Trust Change, 2020 to 2021 More likely to trust what is local 77 68 68 52 50 48 44 +5 +9 +5 +13 n/a -5 -3 People in my local Religious leaders CEOs Journalists Government leaders My employer CEO Scientists community 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. TRU_PEP. Below is a list of groups of people. For each one, please indicate how much you trust that group of people to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 17 box, trust. Attributes shown to half of the sample; “My employer CEO” only shown to those that are an employee (Q43/1). General population, Australia.

INSTITUTIONAL SPOKESPEOPLE GAIN CREDIBILITY Percent who rate each as very/extremely credible - 0 + Change, 2020 to 2021 All-time low as a source of information about a company, in Australia CEO credibility at all-time lows in India, Brazil, Indonesia, Argentina, 58 Russia, France and Japan 55 52 45 44 42 38 37 36 -3 -8 -4 +14 +1 -13 +10 -2 +1 Academic Company technical A person like Government NGO Regular Journalist CEO Board of directors expert expert yourself official representative employee 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. CRE_PPL. Below is a list of people. In general, when forming an opinion of a company, if you heard information about a company from each person, how credible would the information be--extremely credible, very credible, somewhat credible, or not credible at all? 4-point scale; top 2 box, credible. Question asked of half of the sample. General 18 population, Australia.

NO MEDIA SOURCE TRUSTED Percent trust in each source for general news and information, in Australia 61 61 Trusted (60-100) 58 Change 57 56 55 55 54 2020-2021 53 57 57 49 51 53 -3 Traditional media 51 52 48 49 47 46 36 34 35 38 Search engines* -1 33 31 29 32 28 26 26 32 31 Owned media +5 28 28 26 24 23 23 23 Social media +9 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. COM_MCL. When looking for general news and information, how much would you trust each type of source for general news and information? 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. Question asked of half of the sample. General population, Australia. 19 *From 2012-2015, “Online Search Engines” were included as a media type. In 2016, this was changed to “Search Engines.”

NEWS ORGANISATIONS SEEN AS BIASED Percent who agree, in Australia Journalists and reporters Most news organizations The media is not doing well at are purposely trying to are more concerned with being objective and non- partisan mislead people by saying supporting an ideology or things they know are false or political position than with gross exaggerations informing the public 64% 68% 59% 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. POP_EMO. Some people say they worry about many things while others say they have few concerns. We are interested in what you worry about. Specifically, how much do you worry about each of the following? 9-point scale; top 4 box, worry. Attributes shown to half of the sample. ATT_MED_AGR. Below is a list of statements. For each one, please rate how much you agree or disagree with that statement. 9-point scale; top 4 box, agree. Question asked of half of the sample. PER_MED. How well do you feel the media is currently doing each of the 20 following? Please indicate your answer using the 5-point scale below. 5-point scale; bottom 3 box, not doing well. Question asked of half of the sample. General population, Australia.

PRIORITIES SHIFT: Change in importance since MY INFORMATION More Less the start of the year, in Net change Important Important LITERACY NOW Australia... MATTERS MORE Prioritizing my family and their needs 54 10 +44 Change in importance since last year (more important minus less important) 44 11 Being politically aware +33 media and Increasing my 41 11 +30 information literacy 37 14 science literacy +23 Increasing my Speaking out when I see need for 35 13 +22 changes and reforms 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. IMP_VALUES. For each of the following, please indicate whether it has become more important to you, less important to you, or has stayed the same in importance, since last year. 5-point scale; top 2 box; more important; bottom 2 box, less important. Question asked of half of the sample. General population, Australia. Net change is the difference between more and less 21 important.

IN AUSTRALIA, LESS THAN 1 IN 4 HAVE GOOD INFORMATION HYGIENE Percent in each segment Information hygiene: 43 50%of respondents 1. News engagement share or forward news 35 itemsthat they find to be 2. Avoid information echo chambers interesting. 3. Verify information Of those, only 24% have 22 good information hygiene 4. Do not amplify unvetted information Poor Moderate Good information hygiene information hygiene information hygiene 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. MED_SEG_OFT. How often do you engage in the following activities related to news and information? Indicate your answer using the 7-point scale below. 7- 22 point scale; top 5 box, several times a month or more. General population, Australia. For full details on how the Information Hygiene Scale was built, please refer to the Technical Appendix.

BUSINESS EXPECTED TO FILL VOID LEFT BY GOVERNMENT Percent who agree, in Australia CEOs should step in CEOs should take the lead CEOs should hold when the government does not fix on change rather than waiting themselves accountable to societal problems for government to impose change the public and not just to the on them board of directors or stockholders 66% 72% 78% 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. CEO_EXP. Below is a list of potential expectations that you might have for a company CEO. Thinking about CEOs in general, whether they are global CEOs or a CEO who oversees a particular country, how would you characterize each using the following three-point scale? 3-point scale, sum of codes 2 and 3. Question asked of half of the sample. CEO_AGR. Thinking about CEOs, how strongly do you 23 agree or disagree with the following statement? 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. Question asked of half of the sample. General population, Australia.

TRUST IS LOCAL: MY EMPLOYER A MAINSTAY OF TRUST - 0 + Distrust Neutral Trust Change, 2020 to 2021 Percent trust in my employer Trust in my employer stable or rising in 18 of 27 countries Australia 92 89 86 85 83 83 82 79 79 79 78 77 76 76 76 76 75 74 73 72 72 71 70 70 69 66 60 58 76% 78 My employer My employer more trusted than institutions Business 63 0 -1 +2 +1 +7 +2 0 -1 +5 0 +3 +4 +1 +1 +4 0 -3 -12 0 0 -2 -6 +4 n/a -1 +3 -4 -1 l l ll ll l ll NGOs 62 Government 61 Media 51 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. TRU_INS. [Your employer] Below is a list of institutions. For each one, please indicate how much you trust that institution to do what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 24 box, trust. General population, Australia. Question asked among those who are employed (Q43/1).

BEHIND GOVERNMENT, EMPLOYERS EMERGE AS MOST TRUSTED Percent who believe information from each source automatically, or after seeing it twice or less, in Australia National My employer Media reports, Major Advertising Media reports, My social Communications from… government named source corporations anonymous media 62 source 59 56 Nr. of times they need to see 50 47 47 the information repeated before believing it: 45 35 Once or twice 47 45 40 37 38 If I see it here, I will automatically assume it is true 28 17 12 11 10 10 9 7 I will never believe it is true 10 7 13 20 24 21 36 if this is the only place I see it 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. HEAR_TIME1. When you see a new piece of information or a news story in each of the following information sources, how many times do you need to see it or hear it repeated in that same type of information source before you believe it is really true? Question asked of half of the sample. “Once or twice” is a sum of codes 2 and 3. General population, Australia. 25 “Employer communications” only shown to those that are an employee (Q43/1).

BUSINESS GAINS THE MOST TRUST BY BEING A GUARDIAN OF INFORMATION QUALITY Percent increased likelihood of trusting business associated with performing well on each action When these actions are performed well… Increased likelihood of trust Guarding information quality +5.8% Embracing sustainable practices +5.7% Robust COVID-19 health and safety response +4.8% Driving economic prosperity +4.7% Long-term thinking over short-term profits +4.6% 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer. Discrete choice analysis; results shown are marginal effects on likelihood to trust. PER_BUS. How well do you feel business is currently doing each of the following? 5-point scale; top 2 box, doing well. Question asked of half of the sample. TRU_INS. Below is a list of institutions. For each one, please indicate how much you trust that institution to do 26 what is right. 9-point scale; top 4 box, trust. General population, 27-mkt avg. For a full explanation of how this data was calculated, please see the Technical Appendix.

TRUST ADVANTAGE: USE IT OR LOSE IT 1 2 3 4 Business: Embrace Lead with facts, Provide Don’t go it alone expanded mandate act with empathy trustworthy content Business, government, NGOs CEOs must lead on issues Societal leaders must have the All institutions must provide and others must find a from sustainability and courage to provide straight truthful, unbiased, reliable common purpose and take systemic racism to upskilling. talk, but also empathise and information. collective action to solve Act first, talk after. address people’s fears. societal problems. 27

TECHNICAL APPENDIX

2021 EDELMAN TRUST BAROMETER SAMPLE SIZE, QUOTAS AND MARGIN OF ERROR General Population Informed Public Sample Size* Quotas Set On** Margin of Error Sample Size* Quotas Set On*** Margin of Error +/- 0.6% total sample Age, Education, +/- 1.3% total sample Global 31,050 Age, Gender, Region 6,000 +/- 0.8% half sample Gender +/- 1.8% half sample China and +/- 2.9% total sample Age, Education, +/- 4.4% total sample 1,150 Age, Gender, Region 500 U.S. +/- 4.1% half sample Gender +/- 6.2% half sample +/- 2.9% total sample Age, Education, +/- 9.8% total sample Nigeria 1,150 Age, Gender, Region 100 +/- 4.1% half sample Gender +/- 13.9% half sample All other +/- 2.9% total sample Age, Education, +/- 6.9% total sample 1,150 Age, Gender, Region 200 countries +/- 4.1% half sample Gender +/- 9.8% half sample NOTE: Questions that afforded respondents the opportunity to criticize their government were not asked in China, Russia and Thailand. Some questions were asked of only half of the sample. Please refer to the footnotes on each slide for details. * For the general population, there were additional quotas on ethnicity in the UK and U.S., and on nationality in the UAE and Saudi Arabia. ** For the informed public, there were additional quotas on nationality in the UAE and Saudi Arabia. *** 29

2021 EDELMAN TRUST BAROMETER LANGUAGES AND INTERNET PENETRATION BY COUNTRY The Edelman Trust Barometer is an online survey. In developed countries, a nationally-representative online sample closely mirrors the general population. In countries with lower levels of internet penetration, a nationally-representative online sample will be more affluent, educated and urban than the general population. Internet Internet Internet Languages Languages Languages Penetration* Penetration* Penetration* English, Global - 83% Indonesia Indonesian 63% Singapore 88% Simplified Chinese Argentina Localized Spanish 93% Ireland English 92% S. Africa English, Afrikaans 55% Australia English 87% Italy Italian 93% S. Korea Korean 96% Brazil Portuguese 71% Kenya English 87% Spain Spanish 93% English, Canada 94% Japan Japanese 94% Thailand Thai 82% French Canadian The China Simplified Chinese 59% Malaysia Malay 81% English, Dutch 96% Netherlands Colombia Localized Spanish 63% Mexico Localized Spanish 67% UAE English, Arabic 96% France French 92% Nigeria Localized English 61% UK English 95% English, Germany German 96% Russia Russian 81% U.S. 90% Localized Spanish India English, Hindi 41% Saudi Arabia English, Arabic 92% 30 *Data source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm as of 1/12/21

1. News engagement (does one or more of these several times a week or more) 2021 EDELMAN TRUST BAROMETER • “Read, view or listen to news and information produced by major news organizations or publications at the original source” MED_SEG_OFTr1 HOW WE MEASURED • “Read news and information from major news organizations sent to me by others or pushed to me on a news feed, social network platform or application” MED_SEG_OFTr2 INFORMATION HYGIENE • “Read, view or listen to news and information put out by major corporations regarding important social and political issues and events” MED_SEG_OFTr16 To determine whether respondents practiced good • “Listen to podcasts or read newsletters or blog posts put out by independent individuals whom I information hygiene, we measured four dimensions: trust to keep me informed about important issues, but who do not work for a news media 1. Regular engagement with news: Do they stay informed? company”MED_SEG_OFTr17 2. Engagement with differing points of view: Do they avoid information echo chambers? 2. Avoiding information echo chambers (must say they do one or more of these) 3. Information verification: Do they avoid assuming something • “How often do you read or listen to information or points of view from people, media sources or is true simply because it supports their point of view? organizations with whom you often disagree?” NEWS_DIS (weekly or more) 4. Avoids spreading misinformation: Do they check information • “When someone you know sends you some information that supports a position that you do veracity before forwarding content to others? NOT believe, which of the following do you typically do with it?” POS_DIS (study thoroughly) 3. Verify information (must say they do two or more of these) Each respondent’s level of information hygiene was • “Confirm that a news story is really true by looking across multiple information sources” MED_SEG_OFTr15 (several times a week or more) categorized based on their performance across the four dimensions: • “When someone you know sends you some information that supports a position you believe, which of the following do you typically do with it?” POS_BEL (use fact-checking sites and/or • Good: Performs well on three or more dimensions verify from people I know and/or go to original source material) • Moderate: Performs well on any two dimensions • Poor: Performs well on one or fewer dimensions 4. Do not amplify unvetted information (must never do this) • “Pass on news and information to others without first checking its accuracy or the integrity of the source” MED_SEG_OFTr18 31

2021 EDELMAN TRUST BAROMETER HOW WE PLOTTED THE INSTITUTIONAL COMPETENCE AND ETHICS SCORES The competence score (the x-axis of the plot): An institution’s competence score is a net of the top 3 box (AGREE) minus the bottom 3 box (DISAGREE) responses to the question “To what extent do you agree with the following statement? [INSTITUTION] in general is good at what it does”. The resulting net score was then subtracted by 50 so that the dividing line between more competent and less competent institutions crossed the y-axis at zero. The net ethical score (the y-axis of the plot): The ethics dimension is defined by four separate items. For each item, a net score was calculated by taking the top 5 box percentage representing a positive ethical perception minus the bottom 5 box percentage representing a negative ethical perception. The y-axis value is an average across those 4 net scores. Scores higher than zero indicate an institution that is perceived as ethical. DIMENSION ETHICAL PERCEPTION UNETHICAL PERCEPTION Highly effective agent of Completely ineffective agent Respondents were asked: Purpose-Driven positive change of positive change In thinking about why you do or do not trust [INSTITUTION], Honest Honest and fair Corrupt and biased please specify where you think they fall on the scale between the two opposing descriptions. (Please use the Has a vision for the future Does not have a vision for the Vision slider to indicate where you think [INSTITUTION] falls that I believe in future that I believe in between the two extreme end points of each scale.) Serves the interests of Serves the interests of only Fairness everyone equally and fairly certain groups of people 32

2021 EDELMAN TRUST BAROMETER Full list of behaviors examined (top 5 highlighted in bold) 1. Meeting your overall expectations for how they should be responding to the health and public safety aspects of the HOW WE CALCULATED INCREASED COVID-19 pandemic 2. Meeting your overall expectations for how they should be LIKELIHOOD TO TRUST BUSINESS responding to the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic 3. Partnering with other organizations and societal institutions, even if they might be competitors, to mount the strongest and most effective responses possible to our societal challenges Respondents were asked to evaluate the performance of business as an institution 4. Stepping in to fill leadership voids and policy gaps left by against a variety of behavioral expectations. These performance scores were then government incorporated into a discrete choice analysis to determine which behaviors, if done 5. Doing everything they can to ensure the safety and wellbeing of our people and communities well, would provide the greatest boost to trust in business. 6. Identifying and addressing systemic inequalities, unfair treatment, The top five performance drivers of trust, defined in terms of marginal effect on and prejudices within society and in the business world likelihood to trust associated with doing that behavior well, are displayed on the 7. Shaping our culture for the better by inspiring positive change in slide. how we see and treat ourselves and each other 8. Developing new solutions to help address our country’s problems 9. Working to benefit their employees, customers, and local community, in addition to their owners and shareholders 10. Putting people before profits 11. Being the guardian of information quality, working to ensure that only true, verified information is being shared and circulated 12. Driving the economic prosperity of our country Respondents were asked: 13. Working to ensure that our workers have the skills necessary to be competitive in the global job market How well do you feel business is currently doing 14. Investing in the local communities where they are headquartered each of the following? Please indicate your answer or have large production facilities/offices using the 5-point scale below where 1 means the 15. Taking a long-term perspective when making business institution is “failing at this” and 5 means the decisions versus focusing on short-term profits institution is “doing this very well”. 16. Embracing sustainable practices across their business 33

Photo Credits 1 Ruby Princess cruise ship departs Sydney: James D. Morgan/Getty Images2 Prime Minister Scott Morrison announces further measures to stop the spread of COVID-19: Sam Mooy/Getty Images 3 COVID-19 application: Daria Nipot/Shutterstock 4 New South Wales Firefighters battling blaze: Karl Hofman/Shutterstock 5 Protests in Hyde Park to change the controversial date of Australia day: Holli/Shutterstock 6 Woman wearing a mask on a Melbourne tram: Dave Hewinson/Shutterstock 7 Vehicles waiting at COVID-19 checkpoint to cross the state border into Queensland: Igor Corovic/Shutterstock 8 Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews holds a press conference during Stage 3 lockdowns: Darrian Traynor/Getty Images 9 Stage 3 COVID-19 restriction warnings in Melbourne: Dave Hewinson/Shutterstock 10 Sydney Opera House with light display: Srikant Sahoo/Shutterstock.